Studies on Hydrogen Peroxide and the Environment
It has long been known that hydrogen peroxide is used by immune cells (white blood cells) in a process known as the oxidative burst, to effectively eliminate microorganisms in the body, then is safely neutralized by enzymes such as catalase and SOD. Hydrogen Peroxide is classified in microbiology as a "high-level disinfectant" which translates to a maximal level of destruction of most microbial forms.
Reference: see Hydrogen Peroxide in the Immune System
Reference: Medical Microbiology, 3rd Edition, Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1998.
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has funded and published studies demonstrating significant inhalation and dermal (skin) absorption of carcinogenic chlorine by-products found in drinking water and bath (swimming pool) water.
chlorination by products. I. Risk of bladder cancer. Cantor, K.P., Lynch, C.F., Hildesheim, M.E., et al., 1998, Epidemiology; 9(1) p21-28
Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts. II. Risk of colon and rectal cancers. Hildesheim, M.E., Cantor, K.P., Lynch, C.F., et al., 1998, Epidemiology; 9(1) p29-35
Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa. III. Risk of Brain Cancer. Cantor, K.P., Lynch, C.F., Hildesheim, M.E., et al., 1999, American Journal of Epidemiology; 150(6) p552-560
Meta-analysis of studies on individual consumption of chlorinated drinking water and bladder cancer. Villanueva CM, Fernandez F, Malats N, Grimalt JO, Kogevinas M., J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Mar;57(3):166-73.
Disinfection byproducts and bladder cancer: a pooled analysis.
Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, Cordier S, Jaakkola JJ, King WD, Lynch CF, Porru S, Kogevinas M., Epidemiology. 2004 May;15(3):357-67.-
Hydrogen Peroxide in the Immune System
Oxygen intermediates are required for interferon activation of NK cells. Helfand, S.L., Werkmeister, J., Pross, H., Roder, J.C., 1983, Journal of Interferon Research; 3(2) p143-151
Induction of interferon (gamma) production by human natural killer cells stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. Munakata, T., Semba, U., Shibuya, Y. et al., 1985, The Journal of Immunology; 134(4) p2449-2455
H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis.Root, R.K., Metcalf, J., Oshino, N., Chance, B., 1975, The Journal of Clinical Investigation; 55 p945-95
Hydrogen Peroxide in Industry and Medicine
Effect of hot water and hydrogen peroxide treatments on survival of salmonella and microbial quality of whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe, Ukuku DO, Pilizota V, Sapers GM. J Food Prot. 2004 Mar; 67(3) p432-7.
Decontamination of broilers with hydrogen peroxide stabilized with glycerol during processing, Wagenaar CL, Snijders JM., Int J Food Microbiol. 2004 Mar 1;91(2):205-8.
Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, Bair ES, Metheny MA., Ground Water. 2002 Nov-Dec;40(6):657-68.
Ozonation and H2O2/UV treatment of clofibric acid in water: a kinetic investigation, Andreozzi R, Caprio V, Marotta R, Radovnikovic A.Â J Hazard Mater. 2003 Oct 31;103(3):233-46.
Removal of trichloroethylene from waste gases via the peroxone process, Van Craeynest K, Dewulf J, Vandeburie S, Van Langenhove H. Water Sci Technol. 2003;48(3):65-72.
Combined application of simulated reuse and quantitative carrier tests to assess high-level disinfection: experiments with an accelerated hydrogen peroxide-based formulation, Sattar SA, Adegbunrin O, Ramirez J., Am J Infect Control. 2002 Dec;30(8):449-57.
A decontamination process to remove metals and stabilise Montreal sewage sludge, Mercier G, Blais JF, Hammy F, Lounes M, Sasseville JL., ScientificWorldJournal. 2002 Apr 26;2:1121-6.
Improved combined chemical and biological treatments of olive oil mill wastewaters, Bressan M, Liberatore L, d'Alessandro N, Tonucci L, Belli C, Ranalli G., J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 10;52(5):1228-33.
New applications of chemical germicides: hydrogen peroxide, Klapes, N.A., 1990, in Program and Abstracts of the ASM (American Society for Microbiology) International Symposium on Chemical Germicides; Â 20 p14-15
Peroxide as a remedial agent, Love, I.N., 1988, JAMA; 10(9) p1279
Antitumor effects of hydrogen peroxide in vivo, Nathan, C.F., Cohn, Z.A., 1981, Journal of Experimental Medicine; 154 p1539-1553
Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses, Heckert, R.A., Best, M., Jordan, L.T., et al., 1997, Applied and Environmental Microbiology; 63(10) p3916-3918
Killing of blood-stage murine malaria parasites by hydrogen peroxide, Dockrell, H.M., Playfair, J.H., 1983, Infection and Immunity; p456-459
Efficacy of a fluoridated hydrogen peroxide-based mouthrinse for the treatment of gingivitis: a randomized clinical trial, Hasturk H, Nunn M, Warbington M, Van Dyke TE., J Periodontol. 2004 Jan;75(1):57-65.
Effective control of dental chair unit waterline biofilm and marked reduction of bacterial contamination of output water using two peroxide-based disinfectants, Tuttlebee CM, O'Donnell MJ, Keane CT, Russell RJ, Sullivan DJ, Falkiner F, Coleman DC., J Hosp Infect. 2002 Nov;52(3):192-205.